World Science Scholars
3.2 The Gauge/Gravity Duality

If we consider a set of boxes, we would intuitively expect the amount of information we could store inside to scale with the volume of the boxes.drop-down

  • However, with enough gravity, the set of boxes will collapse into a black hole.
  • The information stored in a black hole scales with its surface area.
  • We know that black holes are the most entropic objects in the universe.
  • This gives rise to the Holographic Principle, which states that all of the information within a three dimensional system can be represented on a two dimensional surface.

A ‘duality’ is a situation in which the same physical reality can have several different descriptions.drop-down

  • The Gauge/gravity duality, also known as the AdS/CFT correspondence, states that string theory is equivalent to gauge theory, a non-gravitational quantum field theory.
  • String theory describes the ‘bulk’ of the universe, while gauge theory describes what happens at the ‘boundary’.
  • Because the two descriptions live in different numbers of dimensions, we call such a correspondence holographic.
  • The extra bulk dimension can be encoded in a scale size along the boundary.

Over ten thousand papers have been published that reference the original gauge/gravity duality paper.drop-down

  • The gauge/gravity duality theory has been used to describe systems ranging from micro Kelvin atoms to quark-gluon plasmas with temperatures of several trillion Kelvins.
  • It has enabled physicists to study strongly interacting field theory by working with higher-dimensional gravity.
  • This study of field theory has in turn enabled physicists to study quantum gravity.

Of all known systems, black holes are the...drop-down

  • Simplest in terms of their mathematical description
  • Closest to an ideal fluid
  • Most efficient at storing information
  • Fastest to reach equilibrium
  • Fastest to scramble information
  • Fastest computers

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